Overview by Gordon Stimmell
The first Hale flyers were posted in Boston business establishments and taverns in December 1843, with the first Hale & Co. stamps, showing a batch of folded letters in early 1844. An example of this, shown above, is Scott #75L1
In the summer of 1844, more Independent Mail operations launched, among them Letter Express reaching west from New York to Detroit and Chicago;
All of these Independent Mails thrived on interdependency, that is, they cooperated by recognizing and forwarding each others’ mail matter in a huge grid that encompassed most of the mail routes in the eastern U.S.